Other functions of government via Tag cloud for functions of government.

Administration, operation or support of executive and legislative organs.
Includes: office of the chief executive at all levels of government - office of the monarch, governor-general, president, prime minister, governor, mayor, etc.; legislative bodies at all levels of government - parliaments, chambers of deputies, senates, assemblies, town councils, etc.; advisory, administrative and political staffs attached to chief executive offices and legislatures; libraries and other reference services serving mainly executive and legislative organs; physical amenities provided to the chief executive, the legislature and their aides; permanent or ad hoc commissions and committees created by or acting on behalf of the chief executive or legislature.
Excludes: ministerial offices, offices of heads of departments of local governments, interdepartmental committees, etc. concerned with a specific function (classified according to function).

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  • Target guidelines at actors at different levels in the Societal Architecture, or in function maps of country social capital wikis.
  • Be aware of the Sustainable development goals (#SDGs) that matter for this function of government, and explain what each actor should do to achieve them.

What value orientations matter for this function?

For persons:

For organizations:

for political party: accept competition with other political parties for the membership of the legislature.
for executive offices:
for legislature:
for political party:
for executive offices:
for legislature:

For the function in a territory:

What are feasible objectives & options for delivering this function of government? Taking into consideration dependencies on the country's resource endowments, what options exist to achieve which objectives for this function of government?

Objective: run the executive offices and the legislative organs with a Regime 2 maturity (see tab Diagnostics for the definition of this regime).

Objective: Achieving and sustaining unity in the country.

  • Creating a common vision prior to launching institutional reform.
  • Early on, rule-of-law reform must promote greater transparency and accountability in public administration agencies that handle things like vehicle registration, building permits, rubbish removal, public health inspection, banking regulations and tax collection, since more people have contact with these agencies (and their history of discriminatory practices and corruption) than they do with the formal judiciary.
  • Constitutions are most durable and stable when they are made through broad consultation and negotiation to ensure that all socio-politico-economic forces of the country agree on the rules of the game and put the interests of the people at the center of everything.
  • Harmonizing traditional and modern institutions

Gaps and diagnostics: What goes wrong and why?

Gaps can be articulated with respect to a result framework or the Sustainable development goals (#SDGs). One must take into consideration the level of scope, and its level of development (in a peer group).

In the diagnostics we must also clarify cause-effect relationships in a diagnostic hypothesis.javascript:;

A wide range of political regimes (types of political systems) exist. Encyclopedia Brittanica highlights the distinction between unitary nation-states and federal systems, the mode of succession (hereditary, by constitional prescription, by election, by force), autocratic versus non-autocratic systems a.o. (Typologies of government).

In the Actor Atlas two regimes are prominent:

  1. the absence of substantive democracy, or appropriate governance and public administration institutions that promote peace, development and the protection of human rights (Regime 1); and
  2. the substantive democracy of interdependent democratic institutions with ‘democratic politics and active citizenship,’ which describes the desired executive and legislative organs, behaviours and attitudes; governance institutions that promote the collaboration and participation of all stakeholders from all sectors (the public sector, private sector, and civil society) (Regime 2).

It is assumed that stakeholders of Regime 1 institutions aim towards Regime 2 institutions because of their higher quality. The UNPAN report Reconstructing Public Administration after Conflict: Challenges, Practices and Lessons Learned (2010) will serve as a source for role-specific guidance to Regime 1 stakeholders.

What guidelines can be formulated for delivering this function of government?

The guidelines for actors at the various level of scope had better be informed by a Theory of Change that is aligned with a strong diagnostic hypothesis for the function of government.

Pico: Citizens, Party leader, Prime Minister, Member of Parliament,
Micro: political party
Meso: Inter-Parliamentary Union, League of Cities, League of Municipalities, League of Provinces, United Nations Peacebuilding Commission
Macro: Executive, Parliament (Legislature), Judiciary, Parliamentary Monitoring Organization


  1. Public private partnerships which may involve cooperatives1 may offer suitable models for delivering certain functions of government! What are (open access) best practices? What are workable public-private boundaries in delivering this function?
  2. The level of scope in guidelines is reflected in the socio-technical level of roles. Each role must be defined in one of Pico roles, Micro roles, Meso roles or Macro roles. When a role is referenced here, its definition page should also contain a link to this page.


For each function of government a substantial number of online resources are available. Some of these resources are listed here. Additions can be suggested in comments, or posts using #cofog0111.

Resource links
Recommendation of the Council on Regulatory Policy and Governance (OECD, 2012)
Constitute - The world's constitutions to read, search and compare
A Practical Guide to Constitution Building by CONSTITUTIONNET with chapters on The Design of the Executive Branch, the Legislature, and the Judicial Branch, and Decentralized Forms of Government
When Legal Worlds Overlap: Human Rights, State and Non State Law, by ICHRP, 2009 (via Scribd), including Principles for engaging with plural legal orders
The book Parliament and Democracy in the twenty-first Century: A Guide to Good Practice (2006, by David Beetham) (PDF versions in English (1'835 Kb), French (1'984 Kb), Spanish (1'504 Kb) and Arabic (2'500 Kb)), published by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
Chapter III of Reconstructing Public Administration after Conflict: Challenges, Practices and Lessons Learned, World Public Sector Report 2010 (United Nations Public Administration Network, UNPAN)
Principles of Democracy - a list of thirteen principles which, according to people around the world, must be respected in order to have a democratic government
5 Things Reps Should Do to Be More Transparent (by Daniel Schuman, Jan. 8, 2012, Sunlight Foundation)
Cambridge Studies in the Theory of Democracy (9 titles)
Social Media Guidelines for Parliaments (IPU Publications, 2013; Available in English, French and Spanish)


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