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Look up #cofog0640 for recent online news and announcements on #cofog0640 - Street lighting (CS).

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  • Target guidelines at actors at different levels in the Societal Architecture, or in function maps of country social capital wikis.
  • Be aware of the Sustainable development goals (#SDGs) that matter for this function of government, and explain what each actor should do to achieve them.

What value orientations matter for this function?

For persons:
Objectives: Sufficient and reliable lighting on the streets during evening, night and morning.

For organizations:

Private sector roles
Objectives: profitable participation in technology life-cycles
Options: (1 - business-as-usual) use lobby power, lock-in and knowledge access hurldes to push technology life-cycles beyond their ecological optimum.
(2 - recommended) Enable rapid buy-in of proven new technologies in multi-stakeholder strategies.

Public sector roles
Objectives: optimal service levels for minimal total cost of ownership and minimal ecological footprint.
Options: (1 - business-as-usual) non-critical following of the vendors and solution providers.
(2 - recommended) Incentivise solution providers for rapid adoption of ecologically/economically optimal solutions.

For the function in a territory:

What are feasible objectives & options for delivering this function of government? Taking into consideration dependencies on the country's resource endowments, what options exist to achieve which objectives for this function of government?

Objectives: Low energy use, long life-time of the lighting solution, low cost of ownership
Options: LED (see the report Making Global Street Lighting Led Based), FIPEL (see the Dec. 6, 2012 article of Eletronics Weekly)

Objectives: Low total cost of ownership, high reliability, low carbon footprint.

Gaps and diagnostics: What goes wrong and why?

Gaps can be articulated with respect to a result framework or the Sustainable development goals (#SDGs). One must take into consideration the level of scope, and its level of development (in a peer group).

In the diagnostics we must also clarify cause-effect relationships in a diagnostic hypothesis.javascript:;

0. No street lighting
1. Street lighting based on fluorescent lamps
2. LED-based street lighting
3. Street lighting based on Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent (FIPEL)

What guidelines can be formulated for delivering this function of government?

The guidelines for actors at the various level of scope had better be informed by a Theory of Change that is aligned with a strong diagnostic hypothesis for the function of government.

Private sector: producers of ligthing solutions and related services.
Public sector: local or regional government agencies responsible for street lighting.


  1. Public private partnerships which may involve cooperatives1 may offer suitable models for delivering certain functions of government! What are (open access) best practices? What are workable public-private boundaries in delivering this function?
  2. The level of scope in guidelines is reflected in the socio-technical level of roles. Each role must be defined in one of Pico roles, Micro roles, Meso roles or Macro roles. When a role is referenced here, its definition page should also contain a link to this page.


For each function of government a substantial number of online resources are available. Some of these resources are listed here. Additions can be suggested in comments, or posts using #cofog0640.

Resource links
December 6, 2012 - Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent (FIPEL) - a new lightning alternative
COFOG 06.4.0 /ISIC C - 2740 - Manufacture of electric lighting equipment: Making Global Street Lighting Led Based
ISIC C - 2740 - Manufacture of electric lighting equipment


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