Sector: #COFOG05 - Environmental Protection


The Paris agreement on Climate Change (English version) was agreed by 195 nations on December 12, 2015 in Paris, France. Its aim is to combat climate change and unleash actions and investment towards a low carbon, resilient and sustainable future.

Read more: Historic Paris Agreement on Climate Change - 195 Nations Set Path to Keep Temperature Rise Well Below 2 Degrees Celsius.


The agreement's main aim is to keep a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius and to drive efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

Values & Claims

The Paris Agreement and the outcomes of the UN climate conference (COP21) cover all the crucial areas identified as essential for a landmark conclusion:

  • Mitigation – reducing emissions fast enough to achieve the temperature goal
  • A transparency system and global stock-take – accounting for climate action
  • Adaptation – strengthening ability of countries to deal with climate impacts
  • Loss and damage – strengthening ability to recover from climate impacts
  • Support – including finance, for nations to build clean, resilient futures

As well as setting a long-term direction, countries will peak their emissions as soon as possible and continue to submit national climate action plans (Nationally Determined Contributions) that detail their efforts (as defined in articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13) to address climate change.


See the articles #pacc04 - Mitigation to #pacc15 - Facilitating implementation and compliance for the interactions that the agreement defines for its parties, and for the bodies that are established in the agreement.


Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement by the COP (Conference of the Parties), it will be deposited at the UN in New York and be opened for one year for signature on 22 April 2016—Mother Earth Day.

As stated in #pacc21 - Entry into force, the agreement will enter into force after 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification.

Compliance and Service Levels

For the parties to the agreement, and for the bodies established, how is their compliance or service expressed and ensured?

Competent Courts

Which courts must judge about conflicts arising in the context of the agreement?
See article #pacc24 - Settlement of disputes.


What are the current issues?


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Paris Agreement on Climate Change - #pacc