Sector: most functions of government.
For background and details on this declaration, see Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Wikipedia).
Find the declaration in your mother tongue via Universal declaration > Search by Translation (UN-OHCHR).
Note: The titles of the articles in this wiki page are not part of the declaration. They are provided to help the reader finding a specific article. Feel free to use Google Translate to translate individual articles.
It is the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled.
To serve as common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."
Countries who have ratified the International Bill of Human Rights (Wikipedia).
The Human Rights Library at the University of Minnesota provides an updated (2008) list of countries that have ratified the International Human Rights Treaties.
(In principle) Each person when she or he is in international territory or in the area of jurisdiction of a country that has ratified the bill.
Values & Claims
- recognition of human dignity of all people as the foundation of justice and peace in the world
- four freedoms: freedom of speech, belief, freedom from want, and freedom from fear
- human rights should be protected by rule of law, so that people are not compelled to rebellion against tyranny
- human rights as a foundation for the development of friendly relations among nations
- common understanding of rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance
The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) (Interaction Dictionary is the process which involves a review of the human rights records of all 192 UN Member States once every four years. The UPR is a State-driven process, under the auspices of the Human Rights Council (Actor Atlas), which provides the opportunity for each State (for most of these states there is an Country Actor Map) to declare what actions they have taken to improve the human rights situations in their countries and to fulfil their human rights obligations.
As one of the main features of the Council, the UPR is designed to ensure equal treatment for every country when their human rights situations are assessed.
Compliance and Service Levels
Per country that has already gone through the UPR, see Country Initiative Book (General Public Services) for links.
The declaration is not legally binding. Even before its adoption in 1948, broad agreement existed that the rights which were to be enshrined in the Declaration were to be transformed into legally binding obligations through the negotiation of one or more treaties. In 1966, two separate treaties, covering almost entirely all the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, were adopted after approximately 20 years of negotiations: one for civil and political rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); and one for economic, social and cultural rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)(ICESCR (Actor Atlas page)).
The ICCPR was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976.
The situation differs per country.
The multi-level jurisdictional architecture regarding Human Rights in the world may make the right to an effective remedy (Article 8) difficult to achieve (for many).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
If a wiki page (with #udhr hashtag and possibility to comment) per article is included in the Actor Atlas, then these hashtags and pages are listed below. If not, please consult the articles via the references provided before.
- #udhr01 - Equality in dignity and rights
- #udhr02 - Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms
- #udhr03 - Right to life, liberty and security of person
- #udhr04 - No slavery or servitude
- #udhr05 - No one shall be subjected to torture
- #udhr06 - Right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law
- #udhr07 - All entitled to equal protection of the law
- #udhr08 - Rights to an effective remedy by tribunals
- #udhr09 - No arbitrary arrest, detention or exile
- #udhr10 - Entitlement to a fair and public hearing
- #udhr11 - Presumption of innocence
- #udhr12 - Protection of the law against arbitrary interference with privacy
- #udhr13 - Freedom of movement and residence
- #udhr14 - Right to seek asylum from persecution
- #udhr15 - Right to a nationality
- #udhr16 - Right to marry and to found a family
- #udhr17 - Right to own property
- #udhr18 - Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
- #udhr19 - Freedom of opinion & expression; to seek & receive information
- #udhr20 - Freedom of peaceful assembly and association
- #udhr21 - Right to take part in the government
- #udhr22 - Right to social security
- #udhr23 - Right to work, equal pay, just remuneration, join trade unions
- #udhr24 - Right to rest and leisure
- #udhr25 - Right to a standard of living; social protection
- #udhr26 - Right to education
- #udhr27 - Participation to culture; authorship
- #udhr28 - Social and international order
- #udhr29 - Duties to the community
- #udhr30 - Interpretation of the declaration