Activity (Section) Definition

ISIC Rev. 4 description of #ww88P - Education (activity) (Ens Dictionary).
#tagcoding hashtag: #ww88P

Monitoring & Evaluation

In your country, what is this sector's contribution to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and Targets?

Participate in Voluntary Stakeholder Reporting in accordance with your role in the Social architecture:


Consider Voluntary Stakeholder Reporting as an effective way to share what you are, or could be, doing in support of the Sustainable Development Goals.
> The children's Right to education (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) is not secured for many children in developing countries.
> Teachers' working conditions are unacceptable in many developing countries: many teachers have to teach two or three shifts a day – in classes with very high student numbers and on poor pay. Many teachers are also poorly trained and ill-prepared for what awaits them in schools. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa also face a health problem: in some regions so many teachers have contracted AIDS that schools are forced to remain closed (Source: BMZ, Germany.)
> Teachers, or other knowledge workers, have few or no incentives nor means to contribute content to online resources, such as an online encyclopedia; in the language in which they are teaching;
> In comparison to available online resources in other languages (as listed under Tab Resources, the content contribution a single person can make seems neglectable. At play is the Stag Hunt Problem. Note that schools, a teacher's association or a Department or Ministry of Education are all institutions that could use their power to overcome the ''trust gap'' among individuals.
> In many developing countries, the budgets allocated for primary education are too low to meet requirements and to achieve the goal of universal compulsory school attendance (Expenditure per student, primary (% of GDP per capita).)
> Many schools in developing countries still have no access to internet in the classroom, or in their computer labs.
> Schools where teaching is in languages with little or no online content (see Tab Initiatives), have no means or little interest in promoting the creation and the use of such content.
Youth Declaration submitted to Civil Society Dialogue with the High-Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (Question 1): Many students drop out of school because of economic problems, gender stereotypes, violence and underage marriage. In addition, youth are not interested in graduating because they are aware that they do not have employment opportunities. This is demonstrated by high youth emigration rates from Romania, Armenia, Albania, Georgia, and Gaza. When youth do attend school, the quality of education is low and is coupled with high levels of corruption. In Afghanistan, schools are often insecure without safe or suitable study places for students.

> Many education systems are attempting to push children through curricular material faster than their teachers can teach it and their students can learn it. Students fall behind and eventually stop learning The Negative-Consequences of Overambitious Curricula in Developing Countries (2012).
> The curricula are overloaded with subjects and do not meet the learning needs of the children, and convey distorted or stereotypical images of female and male social role models. Too little account is taken of cultural and regional factors. Teaching times and curricula are too little geared to the children's actual day-to-day reality. Group work, independent learning, critical thought and problem-solving, the use of new technologies and the promotion of life skills are not sufficiently promoted (Source: BMZ, Germany.)
> In many developing countries, teacher's associations are weak or lacking.
> Even where an association exists, the creation of an online encyclopedia is not considered a priority.
> Check Initiatives Tab for a list of languages for which there is no online encyclopedia yet.


Contribute to the #NFUR00 - National follow up and review - #asd79.
At Education in Developing Countries, BMZ, Germany these three gaps are described:
> High illiteracy rates
> Failing vocational training: Sustainable economic development is not possible without qualified experts. But most developing countries lack well-trained specialists. Many countries only have a rudimentary vocational training system, or one that is not integrated into the education and employment system. The courses are usually too theoretical and not geared to the needs of the labour market.
> Failing higher education: Universities and colleges in developing countries are poorly equipped and lack the necessary funding. Only few are able to sufficiently fulfil their research and teaching responsibilities. However, universities and colleges are important for the entire educational system, when it comes to training specialists and managers, and for tackling development-related tasks at private-sector, government and social level.
> Language diversity around the world (Daily Chart, The Economist, Feb. 15, 2012)
> Greenberg's diversity index and its position in a Country-level Results Framework (Education, macro) (Indicator Dictionary).

Interaction Dictionary: Monitoring & Evaluation Realm


pico: Teacher
micro: School
meso: Department of Education, Teacher's Association, The Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA), Teacher and Teacher Educators from sub-Saharan Africa
macro: UNESCO (role page: UNESCO)

Interaction Dictionary: Operations Realm


See Initiative management (a Wikiworx page) for some criteria that had better be met in lean and agile cross-initiative communications as various (autonomous) social actors launch initiatives.

Initiative links
UN Girls Education Initiative
Fast Track Initiative Education For All
Health and Family Life Education - Teacher Training Manual

Interaction Dictionary: Change Realm

Recommendations for change

See the section on Monitoring and Evaluation.

> Teachers, researchers, education administrators and other educated speakers of a language without an online encyclopedia (see Tab Initiatives) start contributing content for basic articles, as part of their activity on the internet.

> Schools encourage and enable teachers to use the school's IT infrastructure and access to the internet to spend some of their working (idle) time in contributing content.
> Companies, as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility activities, support in kind or by funding, the development of online enclopedia in the digitally underserved languages of the countries where they do business.

Youth Declaration submitted to Civil Society Dialogue with the High-Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (Question 1): We call for the following actions:

  • Build collaboration between government and NGOs to provide programs to raise awareness about the importance of education for all girls and boys
  • Organise meetings with parents to discuss the harmful effects of underage marriage and school drop outs
  • Create programs to train youth and to create jobs for them after they finish their education
  • Enhance, establish, and enforce electronic teacher and student monitoring systems
  • Improve security – ensure every child and youth has a safe and proper place to study

> A School Association, Teacher's Associations, a Department or Minstry of Education, or professional associations (operating within the area where a language is spoken) take ownership of the online encyclopedia, or sections of it.

> UNESCO launches a community of practice involving the Education Departments of all countries to exchange best practices, templates,.. and to ensure the proper reuse of content where possible.

Interaction Dictionary: Change Realm

Resources for sector development

ISIC Rev. 4 description of #ww88P - Education

Resource links
Relevant Sustainable Development Goals (#SDGs) and related functions of government (COFOG): #ww88P - التعليم, #ww88P - 教育, #ww88P - Erziehung und Unterricht, #ww88P - Education, #ww88P - Enseñanza, #ww88P - Éducation, #ww88P - Pendidikan, #ww88P - 教育, #ww88P - Onderwijs, #ww88P - Образование
Mapping the landscape of Open Educational Resources institutional initiatives 2013, by UNESCO/COL Chair
Lehrbuch für Lehren und Lernen mit Technologien
OER Knowledge Cloud
Savoirs en partage Le portail des ressources scientifiques et pédagogiques de l'AUF
OER Africa - Building African education capacity through openness
The Negative-Consequences of Overambitious Curricula in Developing Countries (Zunia, April 19, 2012) (a study by Lant Pritchett and Amanda Beatty, interpreting comparative evidence using simulation)
Competence areas, skill and skill level descriptions (
UNESCO Constitution
International Council for Open and Distance Education
Panafrican Research Agenda on the Pedagogical Integration of ICTs with Facebook page
GSV Education Sector Factbook 2012
Schools Interoperability Framework (US, Iowa)

In the media

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